quisqueyameetsborinken

gelopanda:

breezebloops:

Bomba is an Afro-Puerto Rican folkloric music style developed throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries by west African slaves brought to the island by the Spanish. It is a communal activity that still thrives in its traditional centers of Loíza, Santurce, Mayagüez, Ponce, and New York City. The traditional musical style has been diffused throughout the United States following the Puerto Rican Diaspora, especially in New York, New Jersey, Chicago, California, and Florida. It also became increasingly popular in Peru, Panama, Colombia, Venezuela and Brazil, and has largely influenced Afro-Latino music styles within these countries.

More than just a genre of music, it’s most defining characteristic is the encounter and creative relationship between dancers, percussionists, and singers. Dance is an integral part of the music. It is popularly described as a challenge/connection, or an art of “call and answer,” in which two or more drums follow the rhythms and moves of the dancers. The challenge requires great physical shape and usually continues until either the drummer or the dancer discontinues.

There are several styles of bomba, and the popularity of these styles varies by region. There are three basic rhythms, as well as many others that are mainly variations of these: Yubá, Sicá and Holandés. Other styles include Cuembé, Bámbula, Cocobalé, and Hoyomula.

❤️❤️❤️❤️ mi gente

quisqueyameetsborinken
haitianhistory:

Artwork: Mujer criolla y criadas by Agostino Brunias (Source) 
Racial and Social Classes in colonial Saint-Domingue (Haiti)
I. Whites - Grands Blancs 
The Grands Blancs were: usually wealthy whites; born in Europe or of direct European ancestry; owned most of the land, plantations and slaves in the colony; had the greatest access to political power in the domestic affairs of Saint-Domingue; usually did as they pleased in the colony; numbered around 30, 826 (with the Petits Blancs) by the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789)
Whites - Petit Blancs 
The Petits Blancs were: typically poor (or poorer) whites; usually owned neither land nor slaves; little real political power; occupy secondary functions in the colony (usually as overseers, innkeepers, sailors or soldiers); many were former indentured servants; felt much antagonism towards most of the population; could not make full alliance with the Grands Blancs despite color (usually because considered too poor); could not make any alliance with the free coloreds because too racist and jealous of the success of the latter; want to become Grands Blancs but often experience a lot of difficulty; still many did better than some free coloreds; numbered around 30, 826 (with the Grands Blancs) by the 1789.
II. Free Coloreds - Gens de Couleur Libres & Affranchis 
The Gens de Couleur Libres and Affranchis were: ** not all mulattoes or quadroons; some born free, others into slavery; a very complex group; sometimes mixed-race (usually the product of an union between white French men and (more often then not) enslaved Black women, as the case with André Rigaud); sometimes Black (like Toussaint Louverture, who had purchased his freedom and became an Affranchi); many were educated in France; some became considerably wealthy and owned plantations and slaves; rarely treated those slaves with more regards then their white counterparts (because of the established system and desire to keep social distinction alive); not considered equal to whites and often experienced humiliation and discrimination; most important characteristic was that they were “people of color” who were not slaves; many of those who remained in Haiti after the Revolution became part of the emerging elite; numbered around 27, 548 by 1789.
III. Slaves 
The slaves were: essentially considered property; regardless of the Code Noir of 1685, had little real legal protection in practice; enjoyed almost no control over their lives, bodies, labour, sexuality or offspring; separated by the rest of the population by law; number of slaves in island increased considerably every year, not by normal reproductive activity, but due to significant importation of new slaves; experienced different lives if were house slaves, plantation slaves or urban domestic slaves; life expectancy varied with type of labour; plantation slaves usually estimated to live around 10 years after arrival to Saint-Domingue (some scholars argue less); many ran away to escape conditions and formed maroon communities, if only for few months; numbered around 465, 429 by 1789.
Few Observations 
Overall, while Saint-Domingue was a “typical” slave island for the 18th century, a few observations could be made. First, due to the vast import of African slaves each year to the island, whites were easily outnumbered by a ratio of about 15 to 1. This did not appear particularly alarming to most as they believed the slaves would never “even think” of rebelling and were overall passive creatures, incapable of intellectual or physical desire for freedom. 
Another interesting feature of Saint-Domingue is that it possessed one of the fasting growing Gens de Couleur Libres (free people of color/free coloreds) populations. Many of those individuals enjoyed European education and wealth, therefore competed directly with the white population by challenging typical racial and social hierarchies. Increasingly by 1769, Saint-Domingue’s local administrators attempted to limit the social mobility of the Gens de Couleur Libres by excluding them from occupying certain functions in the colony. Racial and color lines were becoming much more rigid than they had before, so much so that there were fewer nuptials between wealthy Gens de Couleur Libres and aspiring white families (a practice that had been fairly common only decades earlier). Moreover, various laws were passed around the same time to segregate whites from free coloreds in churches, theatres, dance halls and other public areas. Despite growing antagonism from the white population - as an increasingly important planter and slave-owning class - most of the free coloreds did not initially think of an alliance with the slave population. 
All in all, by the eve of the French Revolution, which drastically influenced the outbreak and earlier episodes of the Haitian Revolution, the social climate in Saint-Domingue was already tense. 
[ Source, Source, Source, Source, Source & Source ]

haitianhistory:

Artwork: Mujer criolla y criadas by Agostino Brunias (Source)

Racial and Social Classes in colonial Saint-Domingue (Haiti)

I. Whites - Grands Blancs 

The Grands Blancs were: usually wealthy whites; born in Europe or of direct European ancestry; owned most of the land, plantations and slaves in the colony; had the greatest access to political power in the domestic affairs of Saint-Domingue; usually did as they pleased in the colony; numbered around 30, 826 (with the Petits Blancs) by the outbreak of the French Revolution (1789)

Whites - Petit Blancs

The Petits Blancs were: typically poor (or poorer) whites; usually owned neither land nor slaves; little real political power; occupy secondary functions in the colony (usually as overseers, innkeepers, sailors or soldiers); many were former indentured servants; felt much antagonism towards most of the population; could not make full alliance with the Grands Blancs despite color (usually because considered too poor); could not make any alliance with the free coloreds because too racist and jealous of the success of the latter; want to become Grands Blancs but often experience a lot of difficulty; still many did better than some free coloreds; numbered around 30, 826 (with the Grands Blancs) by the 1789.

II. Free Coloreds - Gens de Couleur Libres & Affranchis

The Gens de Couleur Libres and Affranchis were: ** not all mulattoes or quadroons; some born free, others into slavery; a very complex group; sometimes mixed-race (usually the product of an union between white French men and (more often then not) enslaved Black women, as the case with André Rigaud); sometimes Black (like Toussaint Louverture, who had purchased his freedom and became an Affranchi); many were educated in France; some became considerably wealthy and owned plantations and slaves; rarely treated those slaves with more regards then their white counterparts (because of the established system and desire to keep social distinction alive); not considered equal to whites and often experienced humiliation and discrimination; most important characteristic was that they were “people of color” who were not slaves; many of those who remained in Haiti after the Revolution became part of the emerging elite; numbered around 27, 548 by 1789.

III. Slaves

The slaves were: essentially considered property; regardless of the Code Noir of 1685, had little real legal protection in practice; enjoyed almost no control over their lives, bodies, labour, sexuality or offspring; separated by the rest of the population by law; number of slaves in island increased considerably every year, not by normal reproductive activity, but due to significant importation of new slaves; experienced different lives if were house slaves, plantation slaves or urban domestic slaves; life expectancy varied with type of labour; plantation slaves usually estimated to live around 10 years after arrival to Saint-Domingue (some scholars argue less); many ran away to escape conditions and formed maroon communities, if only for few months; numbered around 465, 429 by 1789.

Few Observations

Overall, while Saint-Domingue was a “typical” slave island for the 18th century, a few observations could be made. First, due to the vast import of African slaves each year to the island, whites were easily outnumbered by a ratio of about 15 to 1. This did not appear particularly alarming to most as they believed the slaves would never “even think” of rebelling and were overall passive creatures, incapable of intellectual or physical desire for freedom.

Another interesting feature of Saint-Domingue is that it possessed one of the fasting growing Gens de Couleur Libres (free people of color/free coloreds) populations. Many of those individuals enjoyed European education and wealth, therefore competed directly with the white population by challenging typical racial and social hierarchies. Increasingly by 1769, Saint-Domingue’s local administrators attempted to limit the social mobility of the Gens de Couleur Libres by excluding them from occupying certain functions in the colony. Racial and color lines were becoming much more rigid than they had before, so much so that there were fewer nuptials between wealthy Gens de Couleur Libres and aspiring white families (a practice that had been fairly common only decades earlier). Moreover, various laws were passed around the same time to segregate whites from free coloreds in churches, theatres, dance halls and other public areas. Despite growing antagonism from the white population - as an increasingly important planter and slave-owning class - most of the free coloreds did not initially think of an alliance with the slave population.

All in all, by the eve of the French Revolution, which drastically influenced the outbreak and earlier episodes of the Haitian Revolution, the social climate in Saint-Domingue was already tense.

[ SourceSource, Source, Source, Source & Source ]

quisqueyameetsborinken

haroldlewis asked:

im sorry that im ignorant in this matter but isn't hispanic/latin@ a racial identity? or?

owning-my-truth answered:

There are Asian Latin@s

image

[image description: Picture of former Peruvian president Alberto Fujimori with members of his armed forces. He is Japanese-Peruvian]

Afro/Black Latin@s

image

[image description: Picture of Zoe Saldana, who is an Afro-Latina from the Dominican Republic]

Indigenous Latin@s

image

[image description: Picture of Evo Morales, the president of Bolivia who is ehtnically mestizo but primarily of Aymara descent and identifies with that indigenous nation]

Mixed Latin@s

image

[image description: Picture of Adriana Lima, who is a Brazilian woman of mixed African, Swiss, Portuguese, Indigenous and Japanese descent]

White Latin@s

image

[image description: Picture of Michelle Bachelet, the former president of Chile]

And more.

Latin@ is NOT a race, it is an ethnicity that includes people of ALL races.

lustfulllies

nappysupastar:

fuckingrecipes:

veganbutt:

squigglydigg:

imsopopfly:

Wow I like weird fruits and I have only heard of three of these before. Only actually tried one-the kiwano melon. I eat those regularly.

I made the mistake once of trying the African cucumber.  It, uh.  Tastes like cucumber.  Yeah.

Kiwano is absolutely delicious wtf you talking about

DON’T FORGET THE LAU LAU (rose apple), WHICH HAS A TEXTURE OF A PEAR, BUT FUCKING TASTES LIKE A ROSE SMELLS

Blew my fucking mind when I tried one. 

God is good.

lustfulllies

scumbabe:

faunprincess:

undefinedarchetype:

best six second exchange i have ever seen in my life

This is sooooo good

Oh my god this is 1000% my mother and I.

OMG!!! This is my mom too!